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Legal Aspects of the Paris Climate Change Agreement


On 21 April 2015, the Belgian federal Climate Change Section organised an international workshop, aiming at exploring, in the light of current negotiations, the legal aspects of the Durban mandate “to develop a protocol, another legal instrument or an agreed outcome with legal force under the Convention, applicable to all Parties”.

The workshop was held in Brussels under the auspices of the Belgian Federal Minister of Energy,Environment and Sustainable Development. The discussions were held under the Chatham House rule. All presentations are available on this page.


Chair:              Mr. Michael Zammit Cutajar (Introduction)




Opening of the workshop
H.E. Ms. Marie Christine Marghem, Federal Minister of Energy, Environment and Sustainable Development, Belgium


The Role of Differentiation and Due Diligence  [Abstract]
Prof. Dr. Christina Voigt, Department of Public and International Law, University of Oslo (Norway) 


Procedural Obligations in the Paris Agreement: Obligations of Result, Obligations of Conduct, or Both ? [Abstract]
Prof. Dr. Sebastian Oberthür, Institute for European Studies, Vrije Universiteit Brussel (Belgium)  


Obligations for All: How to Ensure that Parties Will Meet their Commitments ? [Abstract]
Prof. Jimena Nieto Carrasco, Universidad de los Andes, Universidad del Rosario and Universidad Externado de Colombia (Colombia) 

11:05 Discussion 

Options to Anchor Nationally Determined Contributions In/Under the Paris Agreement [Abstract]
Mr. Matthieu Wemaëre, Research Associate at the CERIC, Law Faculty of Aix-en-Provence (France) 


The Legal Capacity of the United States to Accept International Legally Binding Mitigation Targets  [Abstract]
Prof. David A. Wirth, Boston College Law School (United States) 

14:45 Discussion 
16:30 Conclusion of the workshop


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